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Title: Application of Lattice Boltzmann Methods in Complex Mass Transfer Systems
Authors: Gersappe, Dilip
Sun, Ning
Department of Materials Science and Engineering
Venkatesh, T. A.
Marschilok, Amy
Jerschow, Alexej
Issue Date: 1-Dec-2016
Publisher: The Graduate School, Stony Brook University: Stony Brook, NY.
Abstract: Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) is a novel computational fluid dynamics method that can easily handle complex and dynamic boundaries, couple local or interfacial interactions/reactions, and be easily parallelized allowing for simulation of large systems. While most of the current studies in LBM mainly focus on fluid dynamics, however, the inherent power of this method makes it an ideal candidate for the study of mass transfer systems involving complex/dynamic microstructures and local reactions. In this thesis, LBM is introduced to be an alternative computational method for the study of electrochemical energy storage systems (Li-ion batteries (LIBs) and electric double layer capacitors (EDLCs)) and transdermal drug design on mesoscopic scale. Based on traditional LBM, the following in-depth studies have been carried out: (1) For EDLCs, the simulation of diffuse charge dynamics is carried out for both the charge and the discharge processes on 2D systems of complex random electrode geometries (pure random, random spheres and random fibers). Steric effect of concentrated solutions is considered by using modified Poisson-Nernst-Plank (MPNP) equations and compared with regular Poisson-Nernst-Plank (PNP) systems. The effects of electrode microstructures (electrode density, electrode filler morphology, filler size, etc.) on the net charge distribution and charge/discharge time are studied in detail. The influence of applied potential during discharging process is also discussed. (2) For the study of dendrite formation on the anode of LIBs, it is shown that the Lattice Boltzmann model can capture all the experimentally observed features of microstructure evolution at the anode, from smooth to mossy to dendritic. The mechanism of dendrite formation process in mesoscopic scale is discussed in detail and compared with the traditional Sand's time theories. It shows that dendrite formation is closely related to the inhomogeneous reactively at the electrode-electrolyte interface. When the inhomogeneity is small, dendrites form mainly under high current densities, in which the mass transfer is dominated by electromigration; when the inhomogeneity is very large, dendrites may form under both high and low current densities, which is dominated by electromigration in high current density and by surface reactivity in low current density. We show that the critical current density for dendrite formation is sensitive to surface inhomogeneous reactivity and the onset time of dendrite formation is sensitive to the initial roughness of electrode. A new analysis method is introduced, which can predict the formation of dendrites in batteries at a very early stage even before large dendrites form. Charge/discharge cyclic properties of the system are also studied, which shows that electrode roughness will increase during cycles and the break-off of dendritic structures is inevitable once big dendrites form; however, it is possible to minimize the amount of break-off materials by optimizing the rate of discharge. (3) The LBM is also used to simulate intercalation reactions in a Li-Ion battery with graphite as anode and pure Li metal as counter electrode. Both galvanostatic and potentiostatic conditions were studied. The relation between operation parameters (current and potential) and electrode parameters (porosity, thickness and diffusivity) and plating times were discussed. Different equilibrium potentials forms (empirical fitting, fitting of SONY 18650 cell, and staged profiles) were also compared. By modifying the morphology of electrode with a density gradient, it was shown that much better electrode performance can be obtained, which can be helpful for the designing and manufacturing of better batteries. (4) The transdermal drug delivery system is also simulated by using LBM. Two kinds of transdermal structures are discussed: brick and mortar structure and a simple homogenized structure. It is demonstrated that the homogenized system is able to obtain similar steady state flux as the brick and mortar structure; however, in the early transient region, their flux value can be different. The influence of different system parameters (amount of drug in patch, patch thickness, partition coefficient at patch/ Stratum Corneum (SC) interface, and the diffusion coefficient of drug in each component) is discussed in details. It turns out that in this system, the rate-determine step for mass transfer should be the partition between patch and SC layers and the diffusion in the SC layer. The influence of enhancer is also tested. It is shown that by adding enhancers, the drug flux can be significantly increased. However, the peak time of drug does not necessarily match the peak flux time of enhancer. The peak time of drug could be adjusted (pushed earlier or dragged later) by using different kinds of enhancers, which has higher/smaller diffusivity than drug in the SC layer.
Description: 112 pgs
Appears in Collections:Stony Brook Theses and Dissertations Collection

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