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Coastal and Marine Spatial Planning (CMSP): An ecosystem based approach to conservation and management in Long Island Sound

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dc.contributor.advisor Swanson, Robert L en_US
dc.contributor.author O'Connell, Christine Ann en_US
dc.contributor.other Department of Marine and Atmospheric Science en_US
dc.date.accessioned 2017-09-18T23:49:46Z
dc.date.available 2017-09-18T23:49:46Z
dc.date.issued 2013-12-01 en_US
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/11401/76003 en_US
dc.description 287 pgs en_US
dc.description.abstract Past approaches to ocean management in the United States are no longer sustainable because they were largely reactionary and applied in a piecemeal fashion. A more comprehensive ecosystem-based approach is needed. Ocean policy and management practices should be defined by ecological boundaries, not political ones, and should incorporate all elements and processes in the system, including human uses. Thus, a regional, multi-objective plan, such as coastal and marine spatial planning (CMSP), that addresses the cumulative impacts of current and future environmental stressors, is essential. Coastal and marine spatial plans separate conflicting uses in marine environments based upon an established community vision of how the ecosystem should be used, and prioritization of ecosystem services. In addition, best CMSP practices emphasize inclusion of stakeholders from the onset and documenting use conflicts and compatibilities. However, more effective research tools are needed for building comprehensive ecosystem visions and getting early stakeholder buy-in in the CMSP process. The objective of this dissertation was to advance the fields of EBM and CMSP research by developing and testing the effectiveness of such a tool using Long Island Sound (LIS) as a case study. Long Island Sound is a highly urbanized estuary facing increased coastal development pressures. Many ecosystem services are important to the region and new uses are continually being proposed without an overall vision guiding them. Encouragingly, new federal and regional initiatives have put LIS in a prime position to create and implement the process of CMSP. For this dissertation, I developed a targeted survey (n=394) as a new method to analyze stakeholder opinions and initiate early involvement. Opportunities for CMSP in LIS were evaluated with regard to relevant governmental, social, economic, and ecological factors. Theoretical and conceptual bases of CMSP were also explored. The survey was administered to a diverse sampling of LIS stakeholder groups to gauge opinions on use, management approaches, and ecosystem health. The survey quantitatively discerned areas of disagreement and compromise, and measured relative values of ecosystem services in LIS - all of which are necessary components for building a comprehensive vision. Participants' perceived knowledge on LIS topics was analyzed, including on CMSP. Results showed that CMSP knowledge was lacking among most user groups except managers, scientists, and government officials, implying that CMSP information is not extending far beyond the policy community. Perceptions of LIS's ecological health varied regionally, with New York being slightly more negative than Connecticut. Regional and stakeholder variations were observed on the valuation of ecosystem services including fisheries, infrastructure development, and historic significance. Principal component analysis on overall ecosystem service values suggested a 4-factor solution responsible for 57% of the variance: ecology, industry, community, and education. Overall survey results showed that although there are conflicts among stakeholders and regions, there are twice as many compatibilities, and further, that there is not only a need for CMSP in LIS, but a basis to begin organizing such a process. Results from this dissertation can help create a vision for LIS that will serve as a foundation for developing principles, goals, and objectives around a CMSP process.   en_US
dc.description.sponsorship This work is sponsored by the Stony Brook University Graduate School in compliance with the requirements for completion of degree. en_US
dc.format Monograph en_US
dc.format.medium Electronic Resource en_US
dc.language.iso en_US en_US
dc.publisher The Graduate School, Stony Brook University: Stony Brook, NY. en_US
dc.subject.lcsh Environmental science en_US
dc.subject.other coastal management, ecosystem based management, ecosystem services, Long Island Sound, marine planning, marine spatial planning en_US
dc.title Coastal and Marine Spatial Planning (CMSP): An ecosystem based approach to conservation and management in Long Island Sound en_US
dc.type Dissertation en_US
dc.mimetype Application/PDF en_US
dc.contributor.committeemember Schubel, Jerry en_US
dc.contributor.committeemember Conover, David en_US
dc.contributor.committeemember White, Michael en_US
dc.contributor.committeemember Dennison, William en_US
dc.contributor.committeemember Cuomo, Carmela en_US

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