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Physiological, Histological, and Mechanical Characteristics of Selected Epaxial Muscles in Primates

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dc.contributor.advisor Fleagle, John G en_US
dc.contributor.author Huq, Md Emranul en_US
dc.contributor.other Department of Anthropology. en_US
dc.date.accessioned 2017-09-20T16:51:26Z
dc.date.available 2017-09-20T16:51:26Z
dc.date.issued 2013-12-01
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/11401/76922 en_US
dc.description 420 pg. en_US
dc.description.abstract The spine is the central element of the locomotor skeleton, acting as a link between the head and limbs. However, despite well-documented differences in spinal morphology among primates, we have comparatively little quantitative documentation on the structural characteristics of muscles that move the spine. The primary goals of this investigation were: (i) to identify and characterize morphological and related physiological, histological, and mechanical aspects of selected epaxial muscles in two groups of related but behaviorally distinct primates; and (ii) to investigate if these features could be interpreted in terms of the degree of spinal mobility during locomotion. To these ends, thoracic and lumbar segments of three epaxial muscles (iliocostalis, longissimus, and multifidus) were examined for physiological and histological differences in two pairs of primates: (a) <italic>Galago senegalensis</italic> vs <italic>Nycticebus coucang</italic>, and (b) <italic>Chlorocebus aethiops</italic> vs. <italic>Erythrocebus patas</italic>. In pair (a), <italic>G. senegalensis</italic> are habitual leapers, while <italic>N. coucang</italic> are cautious arboreal quadrupeds. In pair (b), <italic>E. patas</italic> are terrestrial quadrupeds; while <italic>C. aethiops</italic> engage in both terrestrial and arboreal quadrupedalism. Physiological and histological parameters studied were: (i) muscle mass, (ii) angle of pinnation, (iii) fiber length, (iv) tendon length, (v) potential excursion of muscle (h), (v) physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA), and (vi) fiber type. Mechanical differences in muscles were studied by investigating characteristics of bony lever arm of lumbar vertebrae of each species. The results indicate that within the first pair, epaxial muscles of the leaper (<italic>G. senegalensis</italic>) are physiologically and histologically designed for generating high contraction velocity (important for rapid back extension during leaping); while the muscles of the slow-moving <italic>N. coucang</italic> are adapted for postural and stabilizing purposes. Differences in bony lever arm also support these observations. Within the second pair, muscles of <italic>C. aethiops</italic> are physiologically suited for generating higher force relative to those of <italic>E. patas</italic>. Histologically and mechanically, however, muscles of <italic>C. aethiops</italic> are adapted for producing high contraction velocity (relative to those of <italic>E. patas</italic>) required for rapid back extension. These differences can possibly be explained by differences in the respective positional behaviors of the two monkeys. In sum, these results indicate that differences in spinal mobility pattern are reflected in structural characteristics of epaxial muscles. Future work will focus on more fine-grained analyses of the locomotor role of spine in primates, including in vivo muscle recruitment patterns. en_US
dc.description.sponsorship This work is sponsored by the Stony Brook University Graduate School in compliance with the requirements for completion of degree. en_US
dc.format Monograph en_US
dc.format.medium Electronic Resource en_US
dc.language.iso en_US en_US
dc.publisher The Graduate School, Stony Brook University: Stony Brook, NY. en_US
dc.subject.lcsh Morphology en_US
dc.subject.other Epaxial muscles, Fiber types, Muscle physiology, Spinal mobility en_US
dc.title Physiological, Histological, and Mechanical Characteristics of Selected Epaxial Muscles in Primates en_US
dc.type Dissertation en_US
dc.mimetype Application/PDF en_US
dc.contributor.committeemember Jungers, William en_US
dc.contributor.committeemember Stern, Jr., Jack en_US
dc.contributor.committeemember Taylor, Andrea en_US
dc.contributor.committeemember Wall, Christine. en_US

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